Jenis dan kegunaan minyak sayuran. Apa yang perlu anda tahu?

Terdapat banyak jenis minyak sayuran dipasaran. Ada minyak kelapa sawit, minyak zaitun, minyak jagung dan sebagainya. Untuk menggoreng, nak guna yang mana satu ye? Sesuaikah minyak zaitun digunakan untuk menggoreng? Begini penjelasannya.


1. Apa itu minyak sayuran?

Minyak masak yg berasaskan tumbuhan dipanggil minyak sayuran. Ada banyak jenis minyak sayuran; minyak sawit, minyak jagung, minyak kelapa, minyak zaitun & dll. Secara kimianya, minyak ini terdiri daripada molekul-molekul asid lemak yg pelbagai jenis (asid lemak tak tepu, asid lemak tepu). Anda boleh lihat kandungan jenis-jenis lemak ini di label pemakanan (Nutrition Information) yang tertera pada bungkusan produk.

2. Jadi minyak sayuran mana yang elok, mana yang tak elok?

Ikut penggunaan. Kalau nak menggoreng, pilih minyak yg tinggi ‘smoke point’ dia (lebih 200 C) & rendah kandungan lemak poli-tidak-tepunya (Polyunsaturated fat).  Kalau nak menumis, boleh pakai minyak yg rendah takat asapnya /smoke point.

3. Apa itu ‘smoke point’ / takat asap? Minyak mana yg rendah, mana satu yg tinggi?

Smoke point ialah suhu suatu minyak masak itu mula menghasilkan asap. Berikut adalah smoke point bagi minyak2 sayuran, hasil ujikaji makmal:
minyak sawit : 220-240 C
minyak jagung: 230 – 238 C
minyak kelapa: 170 C
minyak soya : 230 – 240 C
minyak zaitun: *Berbeza mengikut jenis; Extra Virgin 160 C, Virgin 215 C, Pomace 237 C, dan Extra Light 242 C

4. Kenapa nak smoke point lebih 200 C?

Umumnya, suhu menggoreng (deep frying) ialah sekitar 170-190 C. Apabila minyak dipanaskan melebih suhu takat asap, ianya akan mula membebaskan bahan kimia seperti aldehyde dgn kadar yg tinggi. Kandungan aldehyde yang tinggi akan memberi risiko toksik/ karsinogen pada badan.

5. Apa itu ‘Saturated fat’ ? ‘Unsaturated fat’ tu pula apa ya? Eh, ada ‘mono, polyunsaturated fat’ juga. Apakah itu?

‘Saturated fat’ ialah sejenis asid lemak tepu yang mempunyai rantaian karbon ‘single bond’ (c-c). Rantai karbonnya sudah tepu dengan hidrogen, stabil terhadap suhu tinggi. Contoh minyak yang mempunyai lemak tepu yang tinggi adalah minyak kelapa sawit. Minyak ini juga lambat rosak, tidak berbau tengik (resistance to rancidity) dan mempunyai jangka hayat simpanan yang lama.

‘Unsaturated fat’ pula ialah asid lemak yang mempunyai satu atau lebih rantaian karbon ‘double-bond’. ‘Monounsaturated fat’ ialah sejenis asid lemak yang mempunyai satu rantaian karbon ‘double-bond’. Contohnya; minyak zaitun dan minyak canola.

Manakala ‘polyunsaturated fat’ ialah asid lemak yang mempunyai dua atau lebih rantaian karbon ‘double-bond’. Contoh minyak yang mempunyai rantaian asid lemak sebegini ialah minyak jagung, minyak ‘safflower’ dan minyak soya. Sesetengah ikan seperti ikon salmon juga mempunyai kandungan ‘polyunsaturated fat’ yang tinggi

6. Apakah kegunaan dan khasiat lemak-lemak tersebut?

‘Unsaturated fat’ atau lemak tidak tepu membantu mengurangkan kolesterol jahat seterusnya mengurangkan risiko penyakit kardiovaskular. Menurut kajian, asid lemak poli-tak-tepu atau ‘Polyunsaturated Fat’ seperti Omega 6 dan Omega 3 mampu melindungi sel-sel otak.

Selain itu, Vitamin E juga tersimpan banyak didalamnya. Lemak tepu, walaupun ianya stabil terhadap suhu tinggi, adalah tidak sihat jika selalu diambil kerana ia akan meningkatkan kolesterol jahat dan risiko penyakit kardiovaskular.

Kesimpulan

Pilihlah minyak berdasarkan khasiat dan juga jenis penggunaannya. Perlu diingat, minyak mempunyai kalori yang sangat tinggi = sebanyak 45 kalori untuk setiap 1 sudu kecil (5g) !

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One Reply to “Jenis dan kegunaan minyak sayuran. Apa yang perlu anda tahu?”

  1. Lemak Tepu (Saturated Fat) adalah yang PALING SELAMAT!.

    Lemak Tak-Tepu (Unsaturated Fat) adalah yang paling bahaya untuk kesihatan manusia kerana ia tidak stabil.

    Lemak Tak-Tepu Berbilang Rantaian (Polyunsaturated Fat) adalah penyebab kanser dan penyakit kronik!.

    Dr. Ray Peat, Ph.D., a physiologist who has studied hormones and dietary fats since 1968. He says, the polyunsaturated fatty acids or PUFAs in vegetable seed oils are the bane of human health — they actually cause cancer, diabetes, obesity, aging, thrombosis, arthritis, and immuno-deficiencies. Their only appropriate use, he says, is as ingredients in paints and varnishes. Which is what they were originally used for anyways.”

    Dan Dr. Peat bukanlah berseorangan mengenai kenyataannya; semakin ramai para penyelidik (saintis) yang terkemuka, pakar perubatan, pakar nutrisi pemakanan dan dan pengamal perubatan yang memiliki pandangan yang serupa. Penemuan mereka adalah sama, iaitu: Boleh menyelamatkan nyawa anda!

    Bacaan Tambahan untuk Manusia Yang Inginkan Kebenaran.

    Polyunsaturated oils contain long-chain fatty acids, which are extremely fragile and unstable. “The unsaturated oils in some cooked foods become rancid in just a few hours even when refrigerated,” says Peat, and that’s responsible for the stale taste of leftover foods. Eating slightly stale food with polyunsaturated oils isn’t more harmful than eating the same oils when fresh, since the oils will oxidize at a much higher rate once they are in the body. As soon as a polyunsaturated vegetable oil enters the body, it is exposed to temperatures high enough to cause its toxic decomposition, especially when combined with a continuous supply of oxygen and catalysts such as iron.

    Even if you stop eating them, polyunsaturated fatty acids remain stored in tissue, only to be released during times of stress or fasting — including the middle of the night, when one is asleep.

    Although PUFAs damage every part of the body, the endocrine system, especially the thyroid, is particularly vulnerable. A slow metabolism, low energy, and sluggish thyroid often accompany the consumption of vegetable oils.

    Cattle ranchers discovered the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats in the 1940s, when they fed their livestock inexpensive coconut oil (a saturated fat) in order to fatten them before market. But the cattle didn’t gain weight. Instead, coconut oil made them lean, active, and hungry.

    Next, ranchers tested a thyroid-suppressing drug.

    As expected, the livestock gained weight on less food, but because the drug was strongly carcinogenic, it was discontinued. By the late 1940s, ranchers discovered that soybeans and corn caused the same anti-thyroid effect as the thyroid-suppressing drug, allowing animals to gain more weight on less food. Since then, corn and soy have been the staples of feedlot cattle.

    Oh and btw — cattle aren’t made to eat corn or grain at all, but grasses. They are uniquely designed to break down cellulose, an ability humans are completely lacking. They are ruminant animals, just like deer, elk, antelope, buffalo, etc.

    A later experiment fed animals pure unsaturated vegetable oil, pure saturated coconut oil, and various mixtures of the two. The animals’ obesity increased in proportion to the ratio of unsaturated fat in their diet, independent of the total amount of fat or calories they consumed. Animals that ate even small amounts of unsaturated oil were fat, and those that ate large amounts of coconut oil were thin.

    By 1950, unsaturated fats were clearly shown to suppress the metabolic rate, apparently by creating hypothyroidism. In following years, scientists looked for the mechanism that caused this effect and found that unsaturated fats damage mitochondria through oxidation and enzyme suppression. The more unsaturated a vegetable oil is, the more specifically it suppresses tissue response to thyroid hormones. Unsaturated fats are derived from the seeds of plants, and seeds contain toxins and enzyme suppressors that block protein digestive enzymes in the stomachs of mammals. It’s the plant’s natural defense system, after all. These chemicals evolved to protect seeds from predators and prevent germination until conditions are optimal for sprouting. It’s probably no coincidence that millions of people who eat thyroid-damaging toxins and enzyme suppressors have an epidemic of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, immune system disorders, arthritis, and other chronic diseases.

    Not sure about which are which? Know your fats.

    A number of researchers have argued that along with a surfeit of omega-6 fatty acids, the American diet is deficient in omega-3 (linolenic acid). This fatty acid is necessary for cell oxidation for metabolizing important sulphur-containing amino acids and for maintaining proper balance in prostaglandin production. Deficiencies have been associated with asthma, heart disease and learning deficiencies. (36) Most commercial vegetable oils contain very little omega-3 linolenic acid and LARGE amounts of omega-6. In addition, modern agricultural and industrial practices have reduced the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in commercially available vegetables, eggs, fish and meat. For example, organic eggs from hens allowed to feed on insects and green plants can contain omega-6 and omega-3 in the beneficial ratio of approximately one-to-one, but commercial supermarket eggs from hens fed mostly grain can contain as much as 19 TIMES more omega-6 than omega-3! (37)

    The demonized saturated fats — which Americans are trying to avoid — are NOT the cause of our modern diseases. In fact, they play many essential roles in the body chemistry.

    – Saturated fatty acids constitute 50% of ALL cell membranes, giving them necessary stiffness and integrity so they can function properly.
    – They play a vital role in the health of our bones. for calcium to be effectively incorporate into the skeletal structure, at LEAST 50% of your dietary fat needs to be saturated. (38)
    – They LOWER Lp(a), a substance in the blood that indicates proneness to heart disease. (39)
    – They protect the liver from alcohol and other toxins like Tylenol. (40)
    – They Enhance the Immune System. (41)
    – They are needed for the proper utilization of essential fatty acids (EFA’s). Elongated omega-3 fatty acids are better retained in the tissue when the diet is rich in saturated fats. (42)
    – Saturated 18-carbon stearic acid and 16-carbon palmitic acid are the preferred foods for the heart, which is why the FAT that naturally occurs around the heart is HIGHLY saturated. (43) The heart draws on this reserve of fat in times of stress.
    – Short and medium chain saturated fatty acids have important antimicrobial properties. They protect us from harmful microorganisms in the digestive tract.

    The scientific evidence, when honestly evaluated does not support the assertion that “artery-clogging” saturated fats cause heart disease. (44) Actually, evaluation of the fat in the artery clogs reveals that only 26% is saturated. The rest is UNSATURATED, of which more than half is POLY-Unsaturated! (45)

    So what about cholesterol? Here too the public has been MISINFORMED. Our vessels (cells, blood, etc.) can become damaged in a number of ways – through irritations caused by free-radicals or viruses, or because they are structurally weak – and when this happens, the body’s natural healing substance steps in to repair the damage! That substance is CHOLESTEROL. Cholesterol is a high-molecular weight alcohol that is manufactured in the liver and in most every human cell. Like saturated fats, the cholesterol we make and consume plays MANY VITAL ROLES:

    – Along with saturated fats, cholesterol in the cell membrane gives our cells necessary stiffness and stability. When the diet contains an excess of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these REPLACE saturated fatty acids in the cell membrane so that the cell walls actually become FLABBY. When this happens, cholesterol from the blood is “driven” into the tissues to give them structural integrity. This is why serum cholesterol levels may go down temporarily when we replace saturated fats with polyunsaturated oils in the diet. (46)
    – Cholesterol acts as a precursor to VITAL corticosteroids, hormones that help us deal with stress and protect the body against heart disease and cancer; and to the sex hormones like androgen, testosterone, estrogen, andprogesterone.
    – Cholesterol is a precursor to Vitamin D, a vital fat-soluble vitamin required for healthy bones and nervous systems, proper growth, mineral absorption, muscle tone, insulin production, reproduction and immune system function.
    – The Bile salts are made from cholesterol. Bile is vital for digestion and assimilation of dietary fats.
    – Recent research shows that cholesterol acts as an ANTIOXIDANT (47). This is the likely explanation for the fact that cholesterol levels go UP with AGE. As an ANTIOXIDANT, cholesterol protects us against free radical damage which lead to heart disease and cancer.
    – Cholesterol is needed for proper function of serotonin receptors in the brain. (48) Serotonin is the body’s natural “feel good” chemical. Low cholesterol levels have been linked to aggressive and violent behavior, depression and suicidal tendencies.
    – MOTHER’S BREAST MILK is especially rich in cholesterol and contains a special enzyme that helps the baby utilize this nutrient. Babies and children NEED cholesterol-rich foods throughout their growing years to ensure proper development of the brain and nervous system.
    – Dietary Cholesterol plays an important role in maintaining the health of the intestinal wall (49). This is why low-cholesterol vegetarian/vegan diets can lead to leaky gut syndrome and other intestinal disorders.“

    Sumber rujukan:

    SOURCES: Taken as excerpts from CJ Puotinen’s Research and “Nourishing Traditions” pp. 11-13

    36 — Okuyama, H. et al, “Progressive Lipid Research,” 1997, 35:4:409-457

    37 — Simopoulos, AP and Normal Salem, “American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1992, 55:411-4.

    38 — Watkins, B A, et al, “Importance of Vit. E in Bone Formation and in Chrondroycte Function.” Purdue University, Lafayette, IN, American Oil Chemists Society Proceedings, 1996, “Food Lipids in Bone Health, ” Food Lipids and Health. RE McDonald and DB Min, eds. p. 101. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, NY 1996.

    39 — Dahlen, GH et al, ” Journal of Internal Medicine,” Nov. 1998, 244 (5):417-24; Khosla P and KC Hayes.

    40 — Nanji, AA et al. “Gastoenterology” August 2005 109(2):547-54.

    41 — Kabara, JJ “The Pharmocological Effects of Lipids” The American Oil Chemists Society, Champaign IL, 1987, 1-14; Cohen, L A et al: “Journal of the National Cancer Institute.”

    42 — Garg, ML et al. “Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) Journal, 1988, 2:4:A852; Oliart Ros RM et al, “Meeting Abstracts” The American Oil Chemists Society Proceeding. May 1998, 7 Chicago IL.

    43 — Lawson, LD and FKummerow, “Lipids,” 1997, 14:501-503…

    44 — Ravskov, U “Journal of Clinical Epidemiology,” June 1998, 51:(6):443-460.

    45 — Felton, CV et al, “The Lancet” 1994

    46 — Jones, PJ “American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,” Aug 1997, 66 (2):438-46; Julias, AD, et al; _Journal of Nutrition_ Dec 1982, 112 (12):2240-19.

    47 — Cranton, EM; MD and JP Frackelton MD, _ Journal for Holistic Medicine_ Spring/Summer 1994 , 6-37.

    48 — Engelberg, Hyman, “The Lancet” Mar 21 1992, 339:727-728; Wood, WG et al “Lipids” Mar 1999.

    49 — Alfin-Slater RB and L Aftergood, “Lipids” _Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease_ 6th ed. RS Goodhart and ME Shils eds, Lea and Febringer, Philadelphia 1980, 134.

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